Wednesday, August 26, 2020

How to Read an Academic Paper

With the fall academic semester beginning, many students are faced with reading academic papers unlike they have experienced before. They are likely asking:

  • How can I read this?
  • How can I read this quickly?
  • How can I make sense of this?

Honestly, most of us aren't taught how to read academic papers. We're told to read them and hopefully we learn "how to" through that process. In reality, there  are many resources on how to read academic papers, with some resources available for specific subject areas. Here are two short videos that are more generic and I think will help anyone, no matter your age, major, or school. Please note that these methods take discipline to stick with them and use them consistently. Once you understand these methods and use them for a while, I think they will become easier.

I also want to say that a real ah-ha moment for me was learning that I didn't have to read everything.  Yes, sometimes I do need to read something word for word, but sometimes skimming is enough. Maybe I just need to focus on what a specific article is saying that is different. At any rate, I no longer feel guilty if I don't read everything word for word.

How To Read an Academic Paper (3 minutes) from the UBC iSchool (2013)


5 Ways to Read Faster That ACTUALLY Work from Thomas Frank (2015). Watch the sections on pre-reading, skimming, and pseudo-skimming beginning at minute 1:59.

Monday, August 24, 2020

Sara Benson: Reading Aloud and Fair Use

Sara Benson, who has the podcast Copyright Chat, recently did a 10-minute episode on reading books aloud and Fair Use.  The episode is available where you get your podcasts and also on her library's website (along with a transcript). She also points to a guide written earlier this year by eight people entitled "Reading Aloud: Fair Use Enables Translating Classroom Practices to Online Learning."

As Benson states, since the start of our stay-at-home orders in March and the need for libraries and teachers to work remotely, people have had questions about reading books aloud online. We're used to do this in-person in the library or classroom, but what happens when we do this online? The good news is is that Fair Use still applies.

If you are relying on Fair Use, do you need permission or guidance from the publisher? No. While some publishers have provided such guidance, you don't need that. You need to look at, understand, and rely on Fair Use.

Are there instance where Fair Use does not apply? Some. The one that Benson notes is when read alouds are posted to YouTube and those videos have ads. Rather than posting your videos for everyone to see - and in a platform that you cannot control - I would hope that you would consider how to deliver your read alouds to the group that you normally do this with. Stay focused on your audience (which helps you keep your use fair).

Tuesday, August 18, 2020

Little Free Libraries: An Update on Three Specific Installations

I have not written about these Little Free Libraries here, but am doing so in order to document them and share - in one spot - information about them.

In 2011, I saw something about little houses called “little free libraries'' and wondered on Twitter if that concept could work in Syracuse, NY. From that tweet arose a collaboration between the Syracuse University iSchool, the College of Visual and Performing Arts (VPA), and residents of Syracuse’s Near Westside (NWS) to develop three little free libraries LFL) on the Near Westside. It’s time to look back at what happened, check-in on the three LFLs we installed, and think about them in the age of COVID-19.

It was a team effort

Person writing on whiteboard in front of people
Developing and placing the little free libraries in Syracuse was a collaborative effort. We first had to consider where we might want to place them and how we envisioned them being used. Our first ideas were too complex and eventually we realized that the LFLs will be used how the community wants to use them. In other words, once we placed them in a community, we could not control them. Then we thought about which community could use them the most and we immediately thought of the Near Westside.

Jaime Snyder (now a professor at the University of Washington), Zeke Leonard (SU College of Visual and Performing Arts), and I (now professor emerita in the iSchool) were able to get SU students interested in the idea. Students in VPA were curious about the design aspects and how to create little free libraries that fit into the atmosphere of the Near Westside. iSchool students were interested in meeting the information needs of the Westside residents. We were joined by Maarten Jacobs, who was then the Director of the Near Westside Initiative. Maarten connected us with residents on the Westside, who wanted to give us input and offered to help as caretakers of the LFLs.

Little Free Library full of books
The first LFL was built by VPA students from an old phone kiosk and was located on a building on Gifford Street. The store owner was happy to give us use of part of his outside wall. iSchool MSLIS (library science) students hosted book drives and worked to put bookplates in hundreds of books, along with bookmarks. On Feb. 3, 2012, we held a launch party on Gifford Street for that first LFL! During the event, we accepted more book donations and filled that first LFL several times. It was a hit!

And then there were three

We then installed two more LFLs on the Near Westside. One was at 601 Tully, which was moved three years later to 208 Slocum Avenue. The third was mounted at 300 Otisco Street. All were made from repurposed telephone kiosks, which are virtually indestructible. The original kiosks were modified with shelving, door, and signage, and made waterproof.

The building, where the original free library was located, was purchased and that site turn into a St. Joseph’s Primary Care Center, where the LFL was incorporated into the building’s design. This LFL is being maintained by a broad range of people who live, work or worship in that neighborhood. The other two LFLs have not been maintained as well as hoped, but they do still exist. They both need a bit of care and attention. Perhaps besides books, the community needs them to share other resources such as food or personal care items.

Take a book, return a book

The premise of the little free libraries is “take a book, return a book.” However, we knew that residents on the Near Westside might not have books to leave in the LFL and that they might want to keep the books they borrowed. We didn’t see that as a problem, but rather knew that meant obtaining book donations would be important, so we could keep the LFL filled.

One thing we learned is that many people had books to donate. In fact, we ended up with many more book donations that we could easily handle. Storage became a problem, as did marking the book as being from/for the LFL. Thanks to Maarten Jacobs, who was able to give us storage space, and Lorranne Nasir (a then MSLIS student), who processed a lot of books!

Those three LFLs are not alone in Syracuse

Map of Syracuse area Little Free Libraries
The number of Little Free Libraries in Onondaga County continues to grow. This map from the Little Free Library web site shows many of them. However, many have not been formally registered and are not listed on the site. Interested in LFLs in other regions? You can run your own search on the LFL web site.

We did create documents to be used by other little free libraries, such as information on book drives and a collection development policy. (The collection development policy was a student project.) These are dated materials now, but may still be a good starting point for others as they think about what to accept in their LFL and what to toss out. In fact, the collection development policy would likely be written quite differently now.

LFLs and the pandemic

On the Little Free Library website, Margret Aldrich has written “Best Practices at Little Free Libraries During the Coronavirus Outbreak.” If a LFL steward (or caretaker) decides to leave their LFL open during the pandemic, Margret suggests the following:

  • Follow the Center for Disease Control guidelines. 
  • Wash or sanitize your hands before opening your Little Free Library and every time you use the library. 
  • Regularly clean your LFL, especially high-touch areas of the LFL, like the handle or bookshelves. 
  • If you are sick, don’t share books in your library until you are symptom-free. 
  • If your neighbors are sick, they should not come to your library. 
  • Do not gather with others at your Little Free Library. Social distancing is critical to flattening the curve and slowing the spread of the coronavirus.

A book is the cover and the pages inside. It is believed that the coronavirus does not live long on paper, but may live longer on a book cover which is a harder surface. Research is underway by OCLC, the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), and Battelle “ to create and distribute science-based information and recommended practices” to support the handling of library materials, while mitigating exposure to COVID-19. This research will help LFL caretakers, by giving them science-based information on how to handle donations to their LFLs. In the meantime, caretakers may want to:

  • Quarantine books for a minimum of three days before placing them in the LFL. This is a practice that many public and academic libraries are following. When a book is in quarantine, do not handle it at all.You might set up a quarantine area in a particular spot and mark it as such. 
  • If you are concerned about book covers being dirty, wipe book covers with disinfectant wipes. (Remember that you do not need to disinfect the paper.) 

They belong to their communities

After the Little Free Library launch party
While a few names are mentioned in this post, there are many, many others - too many names to mention - who should be thanked for their help with these little free libraries. (And many more than shown in this photo.) In addition, I know that there are many people in the Syracuse community who have supported these LFLs. Thank you for the books you have placed in them. And thank YOU to those who have taken a book to read. By doing that, you are also supporting these little free libraries!

And that brings us to the biggest lesson of all about these structures. They truly belong to their community. That community includes people who put books in and those who take books out. Jaime, Zeke, and I long ago relinquished any claim to these LFLs. Really, there were never ours. Rather they were a gift from a large group of people to the Near Westside. We’re thankful that you have liked them!

Thursday, August 13, 2020

Sharing Indigenous Cultural Heritage Online: An Overview of GLAM Policies

Existing copyright law, steeped in Western concepts and values, does not adequately protect Indigenous traditional cultural expressions, nor does it sufficiently reflect or account for Indigenous cultural values. - Creative Commons

The first week in the ALA eCourse U.S. Copyright Law in the Library: A Beginner's Guide (which is being taught now) is about local, traditional, and indigenous knowledge. I added that week to the eCourse earlier this year, because I felt that we needed to start with a non-western view of information.  We should understand something about how local communities and indigenous people retain and protect their knowledge.

In this new post from Creative Commons, they talk about sharing the works of indigenous people by galleries, libraries, archives, and museums (GLAM). This is part of their Open GLAM initiative. The Creative Commons has also published a series of Medium (blog) posts related to "global perspectives on open access to the cultural heritage."  (A free-subscription to Medium allows you to see three posts per month.)



Wednesday, August 12, 2020

The Disciplined Pursuit of Less

" hard, hustle, grind it out, busy-ness..." - Matt D'Avella

I started this blog post a year ago. I recognized that I was tired of saying that I'm "busy" and that being involved in so many things was impacting my ability to learn new things (some of which I really needed to learn). Lots has changed since I began this post; so much that I've deleted what I originally wrote.

In 2019, we were all busy! No matter who we were, there was something we needed to do: work, find work, volunteer, engage in specific social activities, etc.  As 2019 came to an end, we looked forward to what we knew about 2020. By March, we realized that what we knew was wrong and what we might have hoped to do wasn't going to happen. Our busy-ness changed and some of it changed into worry.

While we - as people - found our lives shift in March, we watched our organizations shift as well. Many people were told to work from home and many students had to learn from home. Most libraries closed and services shifted to what they could do online. Fortunately, libraries were able to increase their online offerings during this time, which was good for the communities. Sadly, some libraries had to furlough staff because of their budgets. This also caused the remaining staff to be busier.  Yes, during this time we all became busier. More online meetings with work colleagues, family members, and friends. Everyone wanted to connect in some way. And there were many online events being offered, as people tried to keep each other busy. Can we really attend that many virtual meetings and events in one day or one week?

It's now August.  Many businesses and libraries have reopened in some manner. Schools - K-12 and colleges/universities - are reopening for either online, hybrid, or in-person instruction.  We are all now busy preparing for what's next. We might even be thinking about the next shutdown and preparing for that, too.


The draft post and  9-minutes video by Matt D'Avella reminded me that sometimes we need to do less. We can be so busy that we're really not getting things completed, or getting the correct things done. We need to stop and discern where we actually need to spend our energy.  Where can we have the greatest impact? Yes, write down your ideas and then sort through them. Talk with friends and colleagues. We have all spent a lot of time as well as mental, emotional, and physical energy so far this year.  We've been busy.  Now is the time to figure out what we really need to pursue. Focus on those things. Yes...and perhaps do less.

If you're in a library, museum or archive, the remainder of this year may look challenging. In fact, your budget for next year may also looking challenging. Slow down. Focus. Understand the impact you want your institution to have. You will not be able to do it all. Just like you (the person), your institution needs to come through this crisis ready for the future. Being too busy now may drain your organization's ability to do that work when it is needed.

For a moment, try to pursuit less. Your body and institution may thank you.