Monday, July 16, 2018

Book: Open Licensing for Cultural Heritage I have highlighted several books this year and here is one more.

Published in 2017, Open Licensing for Culture Heritage is by Gill Hamilton and Fred Saunderson.  According to the publisher:
Open Licensing for Cultural Heritage digs into the concept of ‘open’ in relation to intellectual property, providing context through the development of different fields, including open education, open source, open data, and open government. It explores the organizational benefits of open licensing and the open movement, including the importance of content discoverability, arguments for wider collections impact and access, the practical benefits of simplicity and scalability, and more ethical and principled arguments related to protection of public content and the public domain.
This book is available only in paperback. 

FTC Disclaimer: Digitization 101 is an Amazon affiliate and receives a small commission if you purchase a product or service from an Digitization 101 Amazon link.

IMLS report on Positioning Library and Information Science Graduate Programs for 21st Century Practice

In November 2017, IMLS hosted a meeting on "Positioning Library and Information Science Graduate Programs for 21st Century Practice." The 40-page report from that one-day event is now available.  The three overarching themes, and places for continued work, were:
  • Recruiting Students 
  • Educating Students
  • Recruiting, Hiring and Retaining LIS Professionals
It is important for us to remember that the diversity in our profession does not match the diversity in the U.S. For example, the U.S. is approximately 18% Hispanic/LatinX, while only 3% of our credentialed librarians are Hispanic/LatinX. The report includes tables on race/ethnicity on page 31, which use the ALA Diversity Counts statistics. 

I expect all of the ALA accredited MSLIS programs will be reviewing this report. It will be interesting to see how this influences their future.

Friday, July 13, 2018

#NDPthree report published: National Digital Infrastructures and Initiatives: A Report on the 2017 National Digital Platform at Three Forum

IMLS has published the report from its #NDPthree event in October 2017.  the one-day event reviewed work done as part of the digital library infrastructures and initiatives portfolio of the National Leadership Grants for Libraries Program and the Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Program. The report - National Digital Infrastructures and Initiatives: A Report on the 2017 National Digital Platform at Three Forum - is 22 pages and provides summaries of the panel sessions and information on the overarching themes.  In the report, the themes for future work are (in alphabetical order):
  • Access
  • Collaboration
  • Community
  • Continuing Education
  • Digital Equity
  • Infrastructure
  • Preservation
  • Sustainability
I'm very pleased that I was able to attend #NDPthree and I'm glad this report has finally been released.  My six blog posts from the event may provide more detail or just give you another point of view. Below is a link to the YouTube recording of the event.

As you may know, IMLS has been under threat of elimination.  Its ability to pull together a broad range of people to think about topics like this and its role in providing funding to libraries and museums needs to be remembered, heralded, and protected.  If you find this report useful, let your voice be heard on why IMLS needs to survive.

Monday, July 09, 2018

Smithsonian Mass Digitization: Smithsonian Gardens: Orchid Collection

Since it is summer in the northern hemisphere, this seems like a "feel good" one-minute video worth sharing from the Smithsonian Institution.

Tuesday, July 03, 2018

Proposed EU copyright legislation to be voted on July 5 (updated)

I don't follow EU copyright legislation closely, so these proposed rule changes have snuck up on me.  According to IPPro The Internet:
Article 11 brings a so-called ‘link tax’ that would allow publishers to secure licence fees from search engines and other intermediaries who use their content for up to 20 years from publication.

Article 13 shifts the burden of responsibility for copyright infringement to the platforms, forcing them to readjust their content protection mechanisms and take down user content at the request of rights owners.
From what I'm reading, Article 13 could case platforms to review content and automatically delete content they think is a duplicate. Since the review would be done by machines, content that is legal could be automatically deleted.  That review process could also slow down the sharing of content.  One place, where I could see that being a problem, is at a live event, where many people are sharing photos online. 

The European Parliament will vote on these on 5 July.  People in Europe are encouraged to contact their Members of European Parliament (MEPs) to express their concern.

Update (July 5): The BBC has reported that the MEPs have rejected Article 13 and they will take up this issue again in September. (The vote was 318 votes to 278, with 31 abstentions.) News reports framed this as a battle between creatives/artists and the technology industry, with each side making impassioned pleas.

Wednesday, June 27, 2018

August - November 2018: Jill's Presentation and Travel Schedule

Cafe au lait and Beignets at Cafe du Monde
Coffee and Beignets
It is never too early to promote webinars and others events, so here is what I have coming up later this year.


  • Sept. 4 & 5, 2:30 - 4:00 p.m. ET - Understanding and Defending Copyright in Your Library: An Introduction Workshop for ALA Editions.  This is a two-part webinar.  Additional information, including learning outcomes, is available on the ALA Editions website.
    Series Description: As a librarian, you are a defender of copyright and of proper and ethical access to information. In this two-part workshop, you’ll learn all about copyright, so you can help discern how your library and community can use print and digital materials within the confines of copyright law.
    Part 1: In the first 90-minute session, learn the basic rules of copyright law in ordinary terms and how to put its usage into context.
    Part 2: In part two, we’ll build upon part one and tackle two important areas crucial to libraries: Fair Use and e-books. Did you know there’s an actual test to determine if the use is fair? You’ll learn about that test and how e-books and other digital materials intersect with U.S. copyright law. Given that digital works are generally licensed and not sold, we’ll also look at how we can advocate on behalf of our libraries and community members.
  • Sept. 18, 10:30 - 11:30am ET - Assuring Library Materials Can Be Used by Your Community for PCI Webinars.
    Having materials in a library’s collection is good; having those materials in the formats needed by the library’s community is much better. The act of supplying content in the formats that community members require is critically important to meeting their information needs.
    This informative webinar will delve into ways of discerning the format needs of a community, including using the census and other data, along with existing reports, to discern the best way of provisioning material for the community.
  • Oct. 23, 10:30 - 11:30 a.m. ET - Moving Your Services into Your Community for PCI Webinars. (Registration is not yet open.)
    We’ve heard the refrains of eliminating the reference desk, embedded librarians, and the like. We also hear of the need to get out into our communities. Yet meeting our community members where they are – not where we are – is still a challenge. If we are free to move about our communities, and deliver services outside of the library, what might that look like? What innovative or imaginative twist can we use, which will spark the community’s attention and interaction? How can we assure that our efforts are accomplished in both safe and respectful ways?

Graduate Courses

At Syracuse University,I will be teaching the following courses.  If space is available, non-matriculated students can enroll in them.
  • Copyright for Information Professionals (IST 735) - Aug. 27 - Dec. 7 (online - asynchronous)
    Geared for library and information professionals, this course provides a firm foundation in the fundamental rules of American copyright law, and equips them with the tools to make informed decisions about copyright issues.
  •  Collection Development & Access (IST 635) - Sept. 28 Dec. 19 (online - asynchronous and synchronous)
    Advanced investigation of collection building, acquisition, and maintenance in libraries and information centers; user and collection analysis, collection development policies, digital resource acquisition and licensing, consortium collaboration, and ethical issues.


I'll be attending the New York Library Association (NYLA) Annual Conference, Nov. 7-10, in Rochester, NY. I'm very excited about the location, which is relatively close to Syracuse.  Also the keynote speakers - a social worker who works in a library and someone who links patrons with community resources - seem very timely.  If you will be at the NYLA conference, let's find time for a cup of coffee.

Friday, June 15, 2018

Book: Licensing Digital Content
In libraries, collection development is vitally important and increasingly complicated.  As someone who is teaching a graduate course on the topic, I can tell you that there is much that should be covered in an introductory course and not enough time for it all. Among the topics is licensing.  Most people have not thought about licenses, even though they have agreed to many licenses in their online world. We generally do not actively seek to license something in our everyday life, so even beginning to think about the topic can raise anxiety levels.  It is into this space that books such as this provide both needed education and guidance.

In 2017, Lesley Ellen Harris, JD, published the third edition of Licensing Digital Content: A Practical Guide for Librarians.Quoting the publisher, ALA:
Giving library professionals and students the understanding and the tools needed to negotiate and organize license agreements, Harris uses a plain-language approach that demystifies the process. Her guide explains licensing terminology and discusses changes in technology, including developments such as text and data mining; points out opportunities for cost savings; features many useful tools such as a comprehensive digital license checklist; provides sources of additional information on the global aspects of licensing; and walks readers through educating organizations that have signed license agreements.
If you are responsible for licensing digital content, or will be in the future, resources like Licensing Digital Content: A Practical Guide for Librarians are ones that you consider reading and referring to.

FTC Disclaimer: Digitization 101 is an Amazon affiliate and receives a small commission if you purchase a product or service from an Digitization 101 Amazon link.

Wednesday, June 06, 2018

Webinar: Assessment, Your Library, and Your Collections

image of presentation's first slide
As part of its Data-Driven Librarianship in Corrections series, today I'm giving a webinar for the National Institute of Corrections, which is part of the U.S. Department of Justice.  Below is the descriptions and the slides are available on SlideShare and the handout is on my web site.  The event is being recorded and I'll update this post with that information after the fact.

Description: Expanding on Ranganathan’s five laws, we know that libraries are for use and that every library has its community (users). In order to ensure that a library is meeting the needs of its users, the library must be able to assess its services, including its collections, and understand how those are meeting the requirements of its community. This webinar will investigate the assessment activities that a library can utilize to determine the needs of its community, as well as those assessments which can help a library assure that a service is meeting its community’s desires. Specific assessments, which can be completed in any type of environment, will be discussed and examples given.

Tuesday, May 29, 2018

Happy GDPR!

The European Union General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) went into effect on May 25. Ahead of that date, all of us received updates and reminders from all the Internet services we use, reminding us of how our data is collected and used.  Those notices were useful, annoying, and a prompt to clean up where I've given permission for my data to be used.

If you are outside of the United States, you are now seeing a notice at the top of this blog, which is in keeping with the GDPR.  Blogger (Google) has placed this notice on the blog on my behalf.  For those of us inside the U.S., the notice is not visible.  So that everyone knows what it looks like and says, I have captured a screenshot of it from the French URL for this site.

Happy GDPR!

GDPR notice on Digitization 101

Wednesday, May 23, 2018

Placing people in their own historical context

Between 1998-2000, I worked on a digitization demonstration project in Fairport, NY on women's suffrage.  The web site for Winning the Vote has changed since then, but it does still exist. What also still exists are the lessons I learned, and there is one that I want to talk about in a new context.
Carte de visite showing Frederick Douglass


For each suffragist profiled, we had a biography written.  As the project manager, I reviewed everything before it went online, including the biographies. As an African American, the biography of Frederick Douglass caused me to ask questions. The acceptable words used to describe an African American have changed drastically since the 1800s. While it is possible to write about Douglass without using any of them, what words should be used to describe his second wife, who was not a woman of color?  We all knew that detail needed to be stated, but what would be the correct words? I spent a long time asking people of their opinion.  I even asked the question on a couple email discussion lists. I didn't feel as if I received good answers and my choice - European American - was not yet a term that was widely used (and it still isn't).  Thankfully, our project historian located text of Douglass talking about his second wife and that text is how we talked about her.  He said:
No man, perhaps, had ever more offended popular prejudice than I had then lately done. I had married a wife. People who had remained silent over the unlawful relations of white slave masters with their colored slave women loudly condemned me for marrying a wife a few shades lighter than myself. They would have had no objection to my marrying a person much darker in complexion than myself, but to marry one much lighter, and of the complexion of my father rather than of that of my mother, was, in the popular eye, a shocking offense, and one for which I was to be ostracized by white and black alike. (Douglass, Life and Times… p. 534.)


Many weeks ago, I participated in a webinar where the first two speakers started their presentations by placing themselves in a theoretical or cultural context.  When it became my turn, I quickly did the same, although I had not planned on doing so. At this point, I don't remember what I said about myself, but it likely included that I come from a corporate background and that I'm originally from south-central Pennsylvania (and yes that does matter).  I believe the other two women included in their descriptions the theories they use for their mental models.

A few weeks ago, I was at a training session where we were asked to provide our preferred pronouns when we introduced ourselves.  This was not my first encounter with the need to do this, but the first time that one person's preferred pronouns (they/them/their) caused a bit of angst among a couple of the participants.

When we look at historical figures - those who are no longer living - we often have to put them in context, because they did not do that for themselves. Most did not publicly state what words they wanted used when describing them.  Nor did they state the framework they used when thinking about an issue.  We use whatever information we can find to try to build that context, knowing that it could be quite flawed.  A good example of this is Eleanor Roosevelt's relationship with two of her female friends.  People guess and speculate, but Roosevelt left nothing behind to put those friendships in a context, which answers the questions we have.

While we were fortunate with Winning the Vote to find text of Douglass talking about his second wife, we really don't know what words he or she (Helen Pitts Douglass) used to describe her ethnicity.  Now, however, we have an opportunity to build the context for a living individual whom we are adding to a repository (e.g., The History Makers).  What might we capture in text or metadata?  The first thoughts that come to my mind are:
  • How the person prefers to be addressed. This would include pronouns as well as  honorifics.  I think of Mrs. Medgar Evers (Myrlie Evers-Williams) who has spoken publicly on what it means to her when someone she does not know calls her first name.
  • Better information on the person's ethnicity.  With more people having their DNA tested, we should capture more than the category the person fits into for the Census.  Personally, my ethnicity is more complicated that I thought, based on my DNA results, yet I identify out of habit as being African American.
  • The words and phrases the person uses to describe himself/herself/themselves.  This might be how the person describes their work or personal life.  For example - and thinking of a family member - is the person an architect, artist, professor, or all three?
  • The person's gender, gender identity, and sexual orientation. While a person might not want to have this shared publicly, I would hope that the person would understand its usefulness, in terms of context, in the future.  I think of David Bowie, how he lived his life, and then the speculations which occurred after his death.
  • Information on what influenced the person.  This could be where the person grew up, what tradition the person was trained in, or something else.
Yes, that would be work and, yes, that would be helpful.  In 100 years, when the words we use to describe people have changed again, knowing how someone described themselves would solve a headache that I know will occur.

By the way, perhaps we each should get this started by writing this information for ourselves and placing it somewhere were it can be found (online or offline).

The photo is of a Carte de visite showing Frederick Douglass. This work is the collection of St. John Fisher College, Lavery Library.

Monday, May 21, 2018

Book: Copyright for Academic Librarians and Professionals

Book coverAs I continue to highlight relevant books, I want to highlight another one by Rebecca P. Butler.

Copyright for Academic Librarians and Professionals was published in 2014.  According to the publisher:
This practical handbook will show students training to become college and university librarians how to make informed decisions regarding the use and availability of print, non-print, and online resources. Based on Butler's 17 years of experience conducting copyright workshops and courses, her book matches real-world scenarios with interpretations of the law from copyright experts in the field to provide a thorough understanding of current, everyday applications of copyright law in higher education.
This book is available only a paperback edition.     

FTC Disclaimer: Digitization 101 is an Amazon affiliate and receives a small commission if you purchase a product or service from an Digitization 101 Amazon link.

Thursday, May 17, 2018

Cracking the furniture code

Image of the OfficePace design considerations
This webpage by OfficePaceTM reminded me of everything I have loved and hated in any workspace, including some that held digitization activities.  Of course, I can look at this information and also think of our libraries and their layout. 

We frequently "make do" with whatever furniture or layout that we have.  We decide to not spend money on furniture or design, because we believe our money is better spent elsewhere.  Yet we know from personal experience that a person's work environment can have a huge impact on the person's productivity and relationship to the workplace. 

If you need to make a business case for new(er) furniture or a different layout, perhaps this information from OfficePace will help you do just that.

Monday, May 14, 2018

Book: Copyright for Teachers and Librarians in the 21st Century

Book coverI want to continue to highlight relevant books and hope to do so more regularly.  This book, Copyright for Teachers and Librarians in the 21st Century, was written by Rebecca P. Butler and published in 2011.  According to the publisher:
Here is a practical copyright handbook designed to help librarians, media specialists, technology coordinators and specialists, and teachers stay within copyright law while making copyrighted print, non-print, and Web sources available to students and others.  Library educator Rebecca Butler explains fair use, public domain, documentation and licenses, permissions, violations and penalties, policies and ethics codes, citations, creation and ownership, how to register copyrights, and gives tips for staying out of trouble.
In addition, Butler covers copyright considerations for different types of media, She also:
covers how to deal with those who would have you break the law; orphan works; file sharing; distance education; digital rights management; the law: classroom exemption, handicap exemption, library exemption, other important federal exemptions in the K-12 schools, parodies, and state laws; copyright lawsuits; relationship of plagiarism to copyright; and copyright and privacy.
This book is available in soft cover format only. 

FTC Disclaimer: Digitization 101 is an Amazon affiliate and receives a small commission if you purchase a product or service from an Digitization 101 Amazon link.

Wednesday, May 09, 2018

Upcoming conference - DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Fundamentals of Creating and Managing Digital Collections

I am passing along what I received in email.

DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Fundamentals of Creating and Managing Digital Collections
October 15-16, 2018
Commerce Club - Atlanta, Georgia

Guided by a faculty of national experts, join colleagues from institutions large and small for two days of instruction on best practices and practical strategies for the creation, curation, and use of digital collections. Network with colleagues who have similar challenges, interact with faculty one-on-one, and gain a comprehensive introduction to digitization and digital preservation. 

Are you just getting started with a digital project? Trying to bring several digital projects together into a cohesive digital preservation program? Or are you well into a digital collections project and need a refresher on the latest standards and best practices?

The Digital Directions conference is geared toward professionals working with digital collections at archives, libraries, museums, historical organizations, tribal organizations, government agencies, business and special libraries and archives, and other organizations that steward digital collections. Discounted student rate is available.

More information is available on the NEDCC web site.  Note that the conference agenda is coming soon.

Tuesday, May 08, 2018

It takes a team

July 15 2006 NY Yankees gameOrganizations value people who can work independently and work in teams. We know that there are some people who do one style of work better than the other. But the reality is that even those individual performers depend on others. Look closely at someone who seems to live completely independently from others and likely you’ll find that there is a support network in the background. Sadly, sometimes that network is never acknowledged publicly.  However, take away the network and the person will fail; sometimes slowly, sometimes quickly.

Last week, it took an ad hoc network of people to connect me with my cell phone, which I had misplaced on the way to the airport.  That nerve-racking experience was my reminder that I am not in this world alone and that I am deeply dependent on others.

No matter your reason for reading this blog, take a moment and remember those people around you - coworkers wherever they may be located, vendors, family, friends, the person who makes your coffee, etc. - who help you to do the work that you do.  When you get a chance, let them know that you recognize their assistance and give them a word of thanks. Who knows, that positive action could come back to you when you need it.

Friday, April 27, 2018

The Library Pros Podcast: Accessibility to All

Library Pros logo
During the winter, I had the good fortune to be interviewed by Christopher DeCristofaro and Robert Johnson for their Library Pros Podcast.  Chris and Bob are technology librarians/technologists in Suffolk County (NY) and their podcast reflects their love of libraries and technology, and everything in-between.  Our conversation focused on accessibility of libraries and content, which is an increasingly important topic for all of us.  What we talked about was broader, in regards to this topic, than you might first imagine...and it was fun!

If this topic interests you, you can listen to the episode on their web site or through many podcasting platforms (e.g., Stitcher).  The episode is 75 minutes in length.

Wednesday, April 25, 2018

Finding answers to legal questions: an interview with Virginia M. Tucker and Marc Lampson

Book cover: Finding the Answers to Legal QuestionsLaw librarians Virginia M. Tucker and Marc Lampson have updated their book, Finding the Answers to Legal Questions. As a follow-up to that new edition, ALA interviewed the authors. 

The interview contains a few words of wisdom for librarians, who are asked legal questions.  In graduate classes, library science students often ask about when they should or should not provide advice.  I like that Tucker and Lampson have tackled that question in this interview.

FTC Disclaimer: Digitization 101 is an Amazon affiliate and receives a small commission if you purchase a product or service from an Digitization 101 Amazon link.

Saturday, April 14, 2018

#UNYSLA2018 : Putting the goal before your work

I also spoke at the Upstate NY SLA Chapter spring conference.  I did an interactive session on goal setting. Slides and handouts are on Slideshare.

Description: Most of us have heard the phrase “plan your work and work your plan,” often in a moment of despair when we wonder what to do next. The conundrum of what to do next is due to fuzzy goals. This working session will begin information on goal setting, which is that upfront work needed before you plan. There will then be time/structure for participants to develop their goals (personal or organizational) and the outcomes that go with them. In other words, what do you want or need to achieve, and how will others (i.e., your boss) know that you have achieved them? What (broad or specific) steps do you need to consider, in order to get from start to finish?

Putting the goal before your work

#UNYSLA2018: Lean back: Methods of collaborative leadership

Rush Rhees LibraryLindsay Cronk and Lindsey Rae presented on methods of collaborative leadership (#LeanBackAlready).

Collaborative leadership through a feminist framework. (For reference, here is a definition of feminist framework.)
The tensions in our workplace need to be acknowledged.
They mentioned a number of areas where we need to have balance including leaning in versus leaning back.
82% of workers say that their leaders are uninspiring. (Gallup survey) 65% would forgo a raise if it meant their leader could be fired.

Librarianship is already collaborative and feminist in so many ways.  We share knowledge and spaces, empower learning...but there is a leadership blind spot.

Where do we see tensions in librarianship?  We see tension in our collections, as well as who is represented in those collections.  Men heavily impact what we collect because they are the majority of authors, publishers, and reviewers. 88% of librarians are white and heavily female.  We don’t represent our communities.

The traditional language of leadership is often masculine. 

What do we want leadership to look like? From the audience:
  • Risk taking
  • Trust
  • Openness
  • Honesty
  • Transparency
  • Supportive
Discomfort and distrust of power and leadership is natural.

The pink diamond of feminist leadership - There are values and principles.

Lindsay and Lindsey placed their slides and resources online. 

#UNYSLA2018 : Crafting a career path in uncertain times

Jan FleckensteinJan Fleckenstein presented on crafting a career path.

“In all periods of history the demand for leadership has been greater than the supply.” - Beta Phi Mu

Today’s leaders are actively looking for the next leaders of their organizations.  

What does a career path look like in this day and age?
  • More responsibility
  • More money
  • More influence
First, be a good follower: 
  • Fulfill your responsibilities
  • Be reliable
  • Develop your soft skills - hiring managers don’t feel that new employers are coming with the needed soft skills
  • Be the solution, don’t be the problem
Be the person that people look to:
  • When they need somebody to take on a new project.
  • When they need somebody to take on a ewe role.
  • When they need somebody to do the unglamorous work that keeps the organization functioning.   
Say yes!  You put yourself in the position to be asked to to do the next thing. This is how you get to leadership roles.

Growing your career #1 means:
  • Managing people
  • Managing conflict
  • Representing your library to the world
Growing your career #2:
  • There are things you have to know or learn as your move up any career ladder.
  • Find opportunities to learn them.
An important thing to do is trust.  Trust your boss.  Does your boss trust you?

Growing your career #3:
  • Broaden your experiences
  • Broaden your outlook
Growing your career #4: Libraries run on money
  • Where does the money come from?
  • What are the constraints?
  • if people trust you, more information on funding will be shared with you.
Getting mentored:
  • Sounds like the awfullest part
  • Mentors are looking for you, too
  • Internal or external mentors
Getting additional credentials
  • Yes, sometimes you need to do this in order to become a leader.
  • Enhance your credentials as you go along.
  • Work to gain and demonstrate knowledge.
Deciding not to pursue a managerial track?
  • I’m a specialist in my area.  Do I have to move into Administration?   No! We cherish our specialists.
Have courage!

#UNYSLA2018 : The ‘F’ word: giving and receiving feedback

At the Upstate NY SLA Chapter spring conference Chris Miller presented on the feared word, "feedback."

Types of cognitive biasesChris reference the Atlantic article, “The case against reality.”

“Positive” feedback may actually be no feedback, which leads us to do more of the same rather than making a course correction.  

“Negative” feedback is what we want.  The information, observation or insight can help us do a course correction. This may be seen as “constructive” feedback.

Your reptilian brain may see feedback as criticism and thus as an attack.

We need to improve our abilities to give and receive feedback.

Everyone wants feedback, especially millennials.  Leaders need feedback and they should model how to receive feedback.
  • Use active listening
  • Summarize and clarify - start with closed ended questions to ensure that you’re on the same wavelength, then use open ended questions to clarify what you’re hearing.
  • Don’t argue, accept
  • Think it over
  • Be mindful/take action 
Chris had us to an assessment on how we deal with feedback and then comment on three quick scenarios.

In giving feedback, many use the sandwich method by putting the negative feedback in the middle of positive feedback. This doesn’t always work because people may cherry pick which feedback they hear.  Chris said this is not a good model.

It’s all about:
  • Creating the right environment including setting the right tone
  • Being specific and concrete - focus on description, not judgement.  Focus on behavior not the person.
  • Making it a dialogue - it doesn’t have to be an immediate dialogue. If you need time to think, say so.
The five steps to construct positive feedback
  1. Convey positive intent
  2. Describe specifically what you observed
  3. State the impact of the behavior or action
  4. Ask the other person to respond
  5. Focus the discussion on solutions 
When to give feedback?
  • Timing of the feedback - close to when the event occurred (in other words, not once a year).  Perhaps ask how often someone wants feedback.
  • Be aware of feedback overload
  • Aim for the midpoint of an “Inverted U” - consider feedback sessions 1-2 per month.  Make the feedback positive and negative.
Feedback in difficult situations - Don’t:
  • Become defensive or counterattack
  • Don’t be pressured into doing something you didn’t mean
  • Docent cause the person of being overly emotional or reactive
  • Don’t feel obligated to handle a difficult situation by yourself
Feedback in difficult situations - Do:
  • Remain objective and focused on the person’s performance
  • If necessary, take a break and follow up later
  • Communicate your awareness of the person’s behavior
  • Consult HR if you’re not sure how to proceed or refer to the employee to an employee assistance program

#UNYSLA2018 : Kindling the Spark of Motivation

Mazar standing in front of an image of a leader with followersThe keynote speaker at the Upstate NY SLA Chapter spring conference was Rochelle Mazar, who spoke on leadership.

We change because we want to.  It can be slow.  As leaders, we cannot force people to change. However, we need to think about the context in which our staff are functioning. We can change the context.  Culture and context tell us what is expected.  We can spend a lot of time looking at context. Mazar focused on “us” (leaders) as context.

What is leadership?  A leader has followers.  A leader without followers is just going for a walk, rather than leading a parade. (See the image above.)

Why are you a leader?  Why is it you? Expertise, best at whatever, competence, specialized knowledge?  This is often who leaders are.  However, if the leaders knows it all, what is left for the team?  

What if your reframe leadership as guiding, making connections, empowering people, advocating, having a big picture perspective, clearing obstacles. When we take on this role, we make room for staff,  their ideas and the tasks that they own.

Leader to staff: “How do YOU think we can solve this?”

Leaders need to acknowledge their own mistakes.  Mistakes make the leader seem human.  Embracing mistakes means that your are embracing experimentation.

Leases automatically have power.  How do you want to distribute it?  Do you need all of the power in every moment?  Sharing power demonstrations trust in your staff.

How do you let staff soar? Have high expectations of staff.  When you do that, you are showing respect for the skills that staff have.  Focus on outcomes and not process. Use their expertise. Remember that all staff have something important to offer.

Question: How can we handle when staff leave/retire? Have the retiring staff member document what they have been doing.  Then make sure you have a good onboarding for new staff.  Someone noted that millennials may not stay long in a position (3-5 years).  Have a plan for how you will handle that turnover.  Also remember that new staff are bringing skills with them that you may not have had before.

Question: How can you help staff get past negatives or institutional baggage? As leaders, we need to be honest and face issues.  We need to lean into it and learn how we can do things differently in the future.  What about issues at a high level that we cannot control? We need to help people cope.   You may need to over share information, so people know what is happening.  Over sharing is not dropping the leadership hat.  Good leaders are willing to explain the real circumstances.

Question: How can consultants use this? Recognize that when you walk into a situation, you have all/much of the power.

Question: How do you share ideas with a leader who doesn’t want to hear them?  Solutions proposed by the group included sharing info with the leader in a way that leaves the person in power.

Question: How do you get staff to empower each other?  Find ways of getting staff to share ideas with each other.  Experiment.

Friday, April 13, 2018

A map that caught my eye

The Westin Hotel in Westminster, CO had this map available in its fitness center. I know it looks like nothing special, but it is not the look that caught my attention.

The Westin is near an amphitheater and a park. The terrain isn't quite flat, but it isn't mountainous either, which makes it good for a walk or run. This small 5 1/4 x 3 3/4" map is the perfect device for helping someone get in a good workout. The front side is the map, while the back side contains map directions. What makes it special, though, it that it is plasticized paper. Yup, waterproof, sweat-proof, snow-proof, rain-proof and mud-proof.

Since this is a blog about digitization and copyright, lets notice that this map has clearly taken advantage of a map (or maps) that already existed. Likely whatever map which was the basis for this was modified to fit the need of this specific running map. I don't know if using that underlying map was "fair" or if New Balance, who actually created this map, paid for the use. Whichever they did, I trust that they have kept it legal.

But let's also notice that this map - contents and type of paper - was made with its use in mind. We often create aids for our users that meet our needs (the library's needs) and don't always consider how a person will use them. Are we providing content in the correct format, language, etc.? I suspect our community members would be happier if we spent a moment thinking about that before we create materials for them.

Running map, 5 1/4 x 3 3/4”

Wednesday, April 11, 2018

Article: Copyright Solutions for Institutional Repositories: A Collaboration With Subject Librarians

I found this 2012 article and it is worth sharing with you.

Copyright Solutions for Institutional Repositories: A Collaboration With Subject Librarians
Written by Heather Leary, Kacy Lundstrom, and Pamela Martin

This work investigates using subject librarians to conduct copyright clearance in an institutional repository (IR). At Utah State University, the library assures copyright clearance for faculty scholarship, thereby garnering input of faculty scholarship into the IR. Currently, subject librarians are not widely participating in routine IR work; however, the involvement of subject librarians with the IR offers benefits to the subject librarians and the institution as a whole. This article provides a model for institutions needing new solutions for copyright clearance using subject librarians and discusses the rationale, benefits and challenges of adopting this model.

Options for access to electronic scholarly and educational information continue to increase each year. The Internet supplies entrance to many digital libraries, discipline repositories, Institutional Repositories (IRs), open access journals, and subscription journals. Today it is common (and some argue necessary) for a university to have an institutional repository showcasing the scholarly output of an institution. As repositories continue to expand and become more relevant, the benefits and challenges of running and maintaining them grow.

This article details a project by the Merrill-Cazier Library at Utah State University that utilizes partnerships and collaborative opportunities between departments. Specifically, the project sought to determine how feasible it is for subject librarians to participate in copyright clearance for the IR. The library’s decision to perform copyright clearance on behalf of authors submitting to the IR is an attempt to encourage faculty support and use of the IR, while requiring very little time and effort on their part, especially considering the time intensive nature of copyright clearance work. As IRs strive to include accurate metadata and access to as many works as possible, the process to obtain permission (copyright clearance) to include a copyrighted full-text can involve time consuming steps. Thus IRs are faced with a bottleneck. This article identifies the benefits and challenges for the subject librarians and the repository in pursuing this goal.

Monday, April 09, 2018

National Library Week 2018

This week, April 8-14, is the 60th anniversary of National Library Week in the U.S. This is the week when we celebrate all libraries, no matter their type.  The expectation is a library will somehow promote itself during National Library Week, but in reality a library should be promoting every day.

This week, I hope that you will find a way to promote your library or the library which you use.  Post a photo of it to social media.  Share how you use its resources.  Use this week show to those around you what your library means to you!

The central library of the Onondaga County Public Library in Syracuse, NY
The central library of the Onondaga County Public Library in Syracuse, NY

Monday, April 02, 2018

April 2018: Jill's travel and presentation schedule

Cafe au lait and Beignets at Cafe du Monde
Coffee and Beignets
I have two presentations next week, which I want you to know about:
  • April 11: 1:00-2:30 p.m. ET (webinar) - part of a three-person panel entitled "Can There Be Neutrality in Cataloging? A Conversation Starter" for NISO.  My presentation is entitled "Access Requires Subjectivity." The event's description is: How does one create awareness of the bias that may be introduced into automated systems? This session will look at the selection of vocabulary in establishing taxonomies and ontologies. What is the real nature of the issue? How might establishing, maintenance, and use of a thesaurus contribute to a more inclusive search/discovery process? And where should responsibility lie for developing such ostensibly neutral tools?  How can we bring more diverse voices into the development/maintenance of these resources?
  • April 13, Upstate New York Chapter of SLA Spring Conference (Rochester, NY) entitled "Lead from Where You Are." I'll be leading an interactive session on "Putting the Goal Before Your Work."
Also, last year I recreated a graduate course in the Syracuse University iSchool entitled "Collection Development and Access."  I taught this class in the fall quarter and it went very well and will be teaching it again beginning later this week. This class is taught with a combination of asynchronous content and live (synchronous) sessions. Our online classes used to be just asynchronous, but now we (SU iSchool) now offer our MSLIS degree in this format. If this online format for an MSLIS program would be of interest to someone you know, please point them towards our iSchool Online web site. Of course, if anyone is interested in our on-campus format, we have information on that, too.

Signage that caught my eye

I have traveled through the Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT) in North Carolina several times recently and this sign below stood out to me. CLT is a sprawling airport and people often have to move from one terminal to another. Notice the information at the bottom which gives an indication of how quickly a person can walk between those different terminals. Those average walk times can be comforting to someone or might help someone who walks slowly to seek assistance. The overall message, though, is that the airport is a manageable size and that you can get to where you need to be.

Think about your library and the information you provide to community members. Do you give people clear indications of what is where? Does your signage provide answers to those questions you receive frequently? The idea is to not have so many signs, which might cause people to not read them, but to provide good information to people when they need it.

So what could you be doing?

Signage at Charlotte International Airport

Tuesday, March 27, 2018

Copyright 101: Staying Legal - Resources

Southwest Florida Library Network logo
Today, March 27, I'm giving a copyright workshop for the Southwest Florida Library Network (SWFLN) in Fort Myers, FL.  I've geared this to be an interactive workshop with several handouts, including a resource list.  Since a paper-based resource list isn't clickable, I'm placing all of the resources here, too, for the participants and for you.  Enjoy!

Tuesday, March 20, 2018

Marrakesh Treaty Implementation Act

The March 19, 2018 email ALA Advocacy Alert contained the following text:
After many years of hard work, we are one step closer to seeing the Marrakesh Treaty implemented in the United States. The Marrakesh Treaty is an international copyright treaty that was adopted by the World Intellectual Property Organization and signed by the U.S. in October 2013. It provides a copyright exception - the first ever in an international treaty - for libraries as authorized entities to make accessible copies of articles and books for people with print disabilities and distribute those copies across borders. If the Marrakesh Treaty Implementation Act is passed the United States will be able to provide a wealth of new accessible content to Americans with print disabilities, including those who speak English as a second language. In many ways, this is a civil rights law. It affirms that access to information is a universal right for all people regardless of circumstance.
More information on the Marrakesh Treaty is available from WIPO and the World Blind Union. I like the World Blind Union's conclusion:
In plain language, this is a Treaty that should start to remedy the book famine. It provides a crucial legal framework for adoption of national copyright exceptions in countries that lack them. It creates an international import/export regime for the exchange of accessible books across borders. It is necessary for ending the book famine, but it is not sufficient. Countries need to sign, ratify and implement its provisions. Non-profit organizations, libraries, educational institutions and government need to take advantage of these provisions to actually deliver the accessible books people with disabilities need for education, employment and full social inclusion.
You can follow the progress of S. 2559, which would amend Title 17 (U.S. Copyright Law) on the web site. The Association of Research Libraries is keeping track of which countries have ratified the treaty.   While the U.S. is not among the first, let's hope we also are not among the last to do so.

If you are interested in seeing the Marrakesh Treaty approved in the U.S. Senate, consider contacting your senator.  It will then need to be ratified by our President.

Monday, March 12, 2018

Sound Recordings and Phonorecords

Music CDWhenever I read part of Copyright Law which contains the word "phonorecord", a little voice inside of me says "w-h-a-t-?".  None of us every go into a store and ask to purchase a phonorecord.   In case, you've never looked up the definitions, here they are.

According to Circular 56:
Generally, a sound recording is a recorded performance, often of another work. A sound recording must be fixed, meaning that the sounds must be captured in a medium from which they can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated.
 So a sound recording is what is recorded and what we listen to.  According to Section 101
“Sound recordings” are works that result from the fixation of a series of musical spoken, or other sounds, but not including the sounds accompanying a motion picture or other audiovisual work...

 Then what is the medium?  Turning again to Circular 56:
A phonorecord is the statutory term for a physical object that contains a sound recording, such as a digital audio file, a compact disc, or an LP. The term “phonorecord” includes any type of object that may be used to store a sound recording,including digital formats such as .mp3 and .wav files.
 As Section 101 says:
“Phonorecords” are material objects in which sounds, other than those accompanying a motion picture or other audiovisual work, are fixed by any method now known or later developed, and from which the sounds can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated, either directly or with the aid of a machine or device.
Since 1790, when the U.S. enacted its first copyright law, the law has played catch-up with technology. Therefore, I like that it now try to include technologies that have not yet been developed ("any method now known or later developed").  So far, that forward looking phrase seems to be working for us!

Friday, March 09, 2018

Using Fair Use

PowerPoint slide with a Fair Use example
During Wednesday's webinar for ALA entitled "Understanding and Defending Copyright in Your Library: An Introduction", I talked about Fair Use. I contend that Fair Use is the concept which everyone uses and few understand.  It is easy to wave your hands and proclaim that your use is fair.  It is more work to decide whether your use is truly fair in your judgment.

When you consider Fair Use, there are questions that will be asked.  You might use some or all of these:
  • What is the situation?  
  • Why do you want to use this work?
  • What is being used and why?
  • How much is being used?
  • Will the use affect the market?
  • Can you use less of the work and still be effective?
  • Would it be possible for people to obtain the work themselves?
  • Can you find something similar that is in the public domain or which has a Creative Commons license?
  • And...what is the real risk if you use the work?
Even asking and answering a few of those questions requires patience, especially if some investigation is needed. Yet it is being patient enough to understand, consider and decide which can make the difference.  And if you decide to locate a different work, that can take time.  (I have spent more time than I care to admit finding images in the public domain or with a Creative Commons license to use in blog posts and presentations!)

During the webinar, I walked through four examples.  Honestly, as I talked about them, I began second guessing what I had written! Had I been true to the four factors?  Had I trivialized the details?  Could I make a different decision?  My internal conversation was running rampant, because I wanted to be sure of the path I was leading people on.  That internal conversation can lead people to want to make a quick decision and get it over with, yet it is that internal questioning that teaches us more about copyright and Fair Use.

Above is one of the slides I used.  The example is that of a patron who wants to make multiple copies of a recent political news article to distribute on the street.  Being on a college campus and around activists, this is a situation that I can imagine occurring.  While it would be easy to skip to a conclusion and decide that the use was not fair, I went though the four factors.  I noted that the last two factor - amount and substantiality as well as effect on the market - opposed Fair Use.  I believed that the nature of the copyrighted work (a news article) favored Fair Use.  However, I felt that the first factor (nature of the use) was unclear, because it seemed to me that it could go either way.  The result would either be a toss-up or a situation where the use was clearly not fair.  Given the third and fourth factors, I think you would agree that the use really would not be fair.  Yes, a bit of work for a result that we might have guessed, but it is that work which would hopefully stop us from abusing someone's property.

I encouraged webinar participants to walk through examples with coworkers, as a way for everyone to get comfortable with Fair Use.  The conversations which would emerge would be educational.  Even any disagreements would be educational.  If those conversations and disagreements lead people to learn more about Fair Use, then that's a good thing. 

Thursday, March 08, 2018

Copyright and the value we place owning property

Statue of someone deep in thoughtYesterday, I gave a webinar for ALA entitled "Understanding and Defending Copyright in Your Library: An Introduction."  As I spoke about briefly about Section 109, it struck me hard the value we put on owning property.  Section 109, referred to as the First Sale Doctrine, is about physical materials.  As a human race, we have shown century after century that we value ownership of material items, whether those items be money, land, equipment, or - sadly at some parts of our history - people. The "American Dream" equates a good life with owning a home and other items.  That Dream was a way of separating people who could afford to own from those who could not.  It is not about community ownership or living a life that is in balance with the world around us; it is about acquiring possessions whether they be immovable (real property, e.g., land) or movable (personal property, e.g., clothes).

Copyright is about asserting property right on our ownership "original works of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression" (Section 102).  The word tangible stands out because  it is difficult to own something that is not fixed in some way.  We know from our use of the Internet that exerting ownership on digital items can be impossible.  We can quickly lose our control over those digital items.  For example, Facebook strips ownership information out of photos that are uploaded to it.  Where that photo came from and who took it is quickly lost.  Our ability to not own digital works has impacted what we can do with ebooks (a topic I discussed yesterday), for example. 

By the way, at the moment, many of us - no matter our station in life - have many digital objects in our procession.  We see them as personal property, yet given how society values property these digital objects has no real value at all.  Does that may it easier to abuse those digital objects (improperly copy, share, etc.)?  Subliminally, perhaps yes.

When people ask questions about copyright, there is always a question about attribution. What if I just acknowledge that the work belongs to someone else, I am okay then?  The answer is "no", because we have not fully respected that someone else owns and controls the work.  We have not fully respected their property.  Consider some equivalent such as moving into your home and acknowledging that is us yours, while simultaneously redecorating in a style that I like!

You might be expecting a thoughtful conclusion to this ramble. I'm not sure that I have one.  I believe that we need to teach children about their rights as creators when they are in elementary school.  I believe that if children understand that they are creators and what that means in terms of their creations, then they will better respect the creations of others.  This, however, is about owning and respecting property.  Perhaps along side those lessons there should be lessons that allow them to think about property in different ways.  That is it not about personal ownership and acquisitions, but about a respectful sharing or co-ownership.  I don't know where those lessons might lead, but I would hope that it might lead to positive changes.

Book: Managing Copyright in Higher Education: A Guidebook

Book cover
Continuing with highlighting books from Rowman & Littlefield, an exhibitor at the ALISE 2018 conference, next up...

Originally published in 2014, Managing Copyright in Higher Education: A Guidebook by Donna Ferullo (Purdue University) was released in 2017 in a paperback version. According to the publisher:
As more and more colleges and universities establish copyright offices and/or assign the responsibilities of copyright education and advisory services to specific individuals within the institution, many times librarians, there is a paucity of resources available on how to manage that responsibility. Most works on copyright discuss the law and court cases interpreting the law but few address the situational application of it and the management and coordination of copyright efforts on a campus.
This book is available in both hard and soft covers, as well as in an ebook edition.

FTC Disclaimer: Digitization 101 is an Amazon affiliate and receives a small commission if you purchase a product or service from an Digitization 101 Amazon link.